# Events and Event Handling¶

Like with all the other GUI frameworks, the control of flow in wxPython applications is event-based: the program normally performs most of its actions in response to the events generated by the user. These events can be triggered by using the input devices (such as keyboard, mouse, joystick) directly or, more commonly, by a standard control which synthesizes such input events into higher level events: for example, a wx.Button can generate a click event when the user presses the left mouse button on it and then releases it without pressing Esc in the meanwhile. There are also events which don’t directly correspond to the user actions, such as wx.TimerEvent.

But in all cases wxPython represents these events in a uniform way and allows you to handle them in the same way wherever they originate from. And while the events are normally generated by wxPython itself, you can also do this, which is especially useful when using custom events (see Custom Event Summary).

To be more precise, each event is described by:

• Event type: this is simply a value of type EventType which uniquely identifies the type of the event. For example, clicking on a button, selecting an item from a list box and pressing a key on the keyboard all generate events with different event types.

• Event class: carried by the event: each event has some information associated with it and this data is represented by an object of a class derived from wx.Event. Events of different types can use the same event class, for example both button click and listbox selection events use wx.CommandEvent class (as do all the other simple control events), but the key press event uses wx.KeyEvent as the information associated with it is different.

• Event source: wx.Event stores the object which generated the event and, for windows, its identifier (see Window Identifiers). As it is common to have more than one object generating events of the same type (e.g. a typical window contains several buttons, all generating the same button click event), checking the event source object or its id allows to distinguish between them.

## Event Handling¶

There is one principal way to handle events in wxPython, which uses the wx.EvtHandler.Bind call and can be used to bind and unbind the handlers dynamically, i.e. during run-time depending on some conditions. It also allows the direct binding of events to:

• A handler method in the same or another object.

• An ordinary function like a static method or a global function.

• An arbitrary callable object.

## Dynamic Event Handling¶

Let us start by looking at the syntax: in any place in your code, but usually in the code of the class defining the handler itself, call its Bind() method like this:

class MyFrame(wx.Frame):
def __init__(self, parent):
wx.Frame.__init__(self, parent)

# Other initialization code...



Event handlers can be bound at any moment. For example, it’s possible to do some initialization first and only bind the handlers if and when it succeeds. This can avoid the need to test that the object was properly initialized in the event handlers themselves. With Bind() they simply won’t be called if it wasn’t correctly initialized.

As a slight extension of the above, the handlers can also be unbound at any time with wx.EvtHandler.Unbind (and maybe rebound later).

Almost last but very, very far from least is the flexibility which allows to bind an event to:

• A method in another object.

• An ordinary function like a static method or a global function.

• An arbitrary function.

Let us now look at more examples of how to use different event handlers using the two overloads of Bind() function: first one for the object methods and the other one for arbitrary functors (callable objects, including simple functions).

In addition to using a method of the object generating the event itself, you can use a method from a completely different object as an event handler:

def OnFrameExit(event):
# Do something useful.
pass

class MyFrame(wx.Frame):
def __init__(self, parent):
wx.Frame.__init__(self, parent)

# Other initialization code...



Note that MyFrameHandler doesn’t need to derive from wx.EvtHandler.

## How Events are Processed¶

The previous sections explain how to define event handlers but don’t address the question of how exactly wxPython finds the handler to call for the given event. This section describes the algorithm used in detail.

When an event is received from the windowing system, wxPython calls wx.EvtHandler.ProcessEvent on the first event handler object belonging to the window generating the event. The normal order of event table searching by ProcessEvent is as follows, with the event processing stopping as soon as a handler is found (unless the handler calls wx.Event.Skip in which case it doesn’t count as having handled the event and the search continues):

1. Before anything else happens, wx.AppConsole.FilterEvent is called. If it returns anything but -1 (default), the event handling stops immediately.

2. If this event handler is disabled via a call to wx.EvtHandler.SetEvtHandlerEnabled the next three steps are skipped and the event handler resumes at step (5).

3. If the object is a wx.Window and has an associated validator, wx.Validator gets a chance to process the event.

4. The list of dynamically bound event handlers, i.e., those for which Bind() was called, is consulted.

5. The event table containing all the handlers defined using the event table macros in this class and its base classes is examined. Notice that this means that any event handler defined in a base class will be executed at this step.

6. The event is passed to the next event handler, if any, in the event handler chain, i.e., the steps (1) to (4) are done for it. Usually there is no next event handler so the control passes to the next step but see Event Handlers Chain for how the next handler may be defined.

7. If the object is a wx.Window and the event is set to propagate (by default only event types derived from wx.CommandEvent are set to propagate), then the processing restarts from the step (1) (and excluding the step (7)) for the parent window. If this object is not a window but the next handler exists, the event is passed to its parent if it is a window. This ensures that in a common case of (possibly several) non-window event handlers pushed on top of a window, the event eventually reaches the window parent.

8. Finally, i.e., if the event is still not processed, the wx.App object itself (which derives from wx.EvtHandler) gets a last chance to process it.

Please pay close attention to step 6! People often overlook or get confused by this powerful feature of the wxPython event processing system. The details of event propagation up the window hierarchy are described in the next section.

### How Events Propagate Upwards¶

As mentioned above, the events of the classes deriving from wx.CommandEvent are propagated by default to the parent window if they are not processed in this window itself. But although by default only the command events are propagated like this, other events can be propagated as well because the event handling code uses wx.Event.ShouldPropagate to check whether an event should be propagated. It is also possible to propagate the event only a limited number of times and not until it is processed (or a top level parent window is reached).

Finally, there is another additional complication (which, in fact, simplifies life of wxPython programmers significantly): when propagating the command events up to the parent window, the event propagation stops when it reaches the parent dialog, if any. This means that you don’t risk getting unexpected events from the dialog controls (which might be left unprocessed by the dialog itself because it doesn’t care about them) when a modal dialog is popped up. The events do propagate beyond the frames, however. The rationale for this choice is that there are only a few frames in a typical application and their parent-child relation are well understood by the programmer while it may be difficult, if not impossible, to track down all the dialogs that may be popped up in a complex program (remember that some are created automatically by wxPython). If you need to specify a different behaviour for some reason, you can use wx.Window.SetExtraStyle (wx.WS_EX_BLOCK_EVENTS) explicitly to prevent the events from being propagated beyond the given window or unset this flag for the dialogs that have it on by default.

Typically events that deal with a window as a window (size, motion, paint, mouse, keyboard, etc.) are sent only to the window. Events that have a higher level of meaning or are generated by the window itself (button click, menu select, tree expand, etc.) are command events and are sent up to the parent to see if it is interested in the event. More precisely, as said above, all event classes not deriving from wx.CommandEvent (see the wx.Event inheritance diagram) do not propagate upward.

In some cases, it might be desired by the programmer to get a certain number of system events in a parent window, for example all key events sent to, but not used by, the native controls in a dialog. In this case, a special event handler will have to be written that will override ProcessEvent() in order to pass all events (or any selection of them) to the parent window.

### Event Handlers Chain¶

Step 4 of the event propagation algorithm checks for the next handler in the event handler chain. This chain can be formed using wx.EvtHandler.SetNextHandler:

(Referring to the image, if A.ProcessEvent is called and it doesn’t handle the event, B.ProcessEvent will be called and so on…).

Additionally, in the case of wx.Window you can build a stack (implemented using wx.EvtHandler double-linked list) using wx.Window.PushEventHandler:

(Referring to the image, if W.ProcessEvent is called, it immediately calls A.ProcessEvent; if nor A nor B handle the event, then the wx.Window itself is used – i.e. the dynamically bind event handlers and static event table entries of wx.Window are looked as the last possibility, after all pushed event handlers were tested).

By default the chain is empty, i.e. there is no next handler.

## Custom Event Summary¶

### General approach¶

Custom event classes allow you to create more polished-seeming controls by allowing the control’s user to process updates without needing to sub-class the control. However, to effectively use events, you normally need to create custom event classes.

This recipe gives you some boilerplate code for creating your own custom event classes:

import wx
import wx.lib.newevent

SomeNewEvent, EVT_SOME_NEW_EVENT = wx.lib.newevent.NewEvent()
SomeNewCommandEvent, EVT_SOME_NEW_COMMAND_EVENT = wx.lib.newevent.NewCommandEvent()


You can bind the events normally via either binding syntax:

self.Bind(EVT_SOME_NEW_EVENT, self.handler)
EVT_SOME_NEW_EVENT(self, self.handler)


You can also attach arbitrary data to the event during its creation, then post it to whatever window you choose:

# Create the event
evt = SomeNewEvent(attr1="hello", attr2=654)
# Post the event
wx.PostEvent(target, evt)


When handling events with such arbitrary data, you can fetch the data via attributes, named the same as the names passed in during the event instance creation. That is, given the two keyword arguments passed to SomeNewEvent above:

def handler(self, evt):
# Given the above constructed event, the following is true
evt.attr1 == "hello"
evt.attr2 == 654


## Miscellaneous Notes¶

### User Generated Events vs Programmatically Generated Events¶

While generically a wx.Event can be generated both by user actions (e.g., resize of a wx.Window) and by calls to functions (e.g., wx.Window.SetSize), wxPython controls normally send wx.CommandEvent -derived events only for the user-generated events. The only exceptions to this rule are:

wx.TextEntry.ChangeValue can be used instead of wx.TextEntry.SetValue but the other functions, such as wx.TextEntry.Replace or wx.TextCtrl.WriteText don’t have event-free equivalents.

### Window Identifiers¶

Window identifiers are integers, and are used to uniquely determine window identity in the event system (though you can use it for other purposes). In fact, identifiers do not need to be unique across your entire application as long they are unique within the particular context you’re interested in, such as a frame and its children. You may use the wx.ID_OK identifier, for example, on any number of dialogs as long as you don’t have several within the same dialog.

If you pass wx.ID_ANY or -1 to a window constructor, an identifier will be generated for you automatically by wxPython. This is useful when you don’t care about the exact identifier either because you’re not going to process the events from the control being created or because you process the events from all controls in one place (in which case you should specify wx.ID_ANY in the wx.EvtHandler.Bind call as well). The automatically generated identifiers are always negative and so will never conflict with the user-specified identifiers which must be always positive.

You can use wx.ID_HIGHEST to determine the number above which it is safe to define your own identifiers. Or, you can use identifiers below wx.ID_LOWEST. Finally, you can allocate identifiers dynamically using wx.NewIdRef function too. If you use wx.NewIdRef consistently in your application, you can be sure that your identifiers don’t conflict accidentally.