phoenix_title wx.html2.WebView

This control may be used to render web (HTML / CSS / javascript) documents.

It is designed to allow the creation of multiple backends for each port, although currently just one is available. It differs from wx.html.HtmlWindow in that each backend is actually a full rendering engine, Trident on MSW and Webkit on macOS and GTK. This allows the correct viewing of complex pages with javascript and css.

phoenix_title Backend Descriptions

WEBVIEW_BACKEND_IE (MSW)

WebBrowser control, which this backend uses, emulate Internet Explorer 7. This can be changed with a registry setting by WebView.MSWSetEmulationLevel() see this article for more information. This backend has full support for custom schemes and virtual file systems.

WEBVIEW_BACKEND_EDGE (MSW)

The Edge (Chromium) backend uses Microsoft’s

Edge WebView2. It is available for Windows 7 and newer. The following features are currently unsupported with this backend: virtual filesystems, custom urls, find. This backend is not enabled by default, to build it follow these steps:

  • Visual Studio 2015, or newer, is required

  • Download the WebView2 SDK nuget package (Version 0.9.488 or newer)

  • Extract the package (it’s a zip archive) to Widgets/3rdparty/webview2 (you should have 3rdparty/webview2/build/native/include/WebView2.h file after unpacking it)

  • Enable USE_WEBVIEW_EDGE in CMake or setup.h

  • Build wxWidgets webview library

  • Copy WebView2Loader.dll from the subdirectory corresponding to the architecture used (x86 or x64) of Widgets/3rdparty/webview2/build/ to your applications executable

  • At runtime you can use wx.html2.WebView.IsBackendAvailable to check if the backend can be used (it will be available if WebView2Loader.dll can be loaded and Edge (Chromium) is installed)

  • Make sure to add a note about using the WebView2 SDK to your application documentation, as required by its licence

WEBVIEW_WEBKIT (GTK)

Under GTK the WebKit backend uses

WebKitGTK+. The current minimum version required is 1.3.1 which ships by default with Ubuntu Natty and Debian Wheezy and has the package name libwebkitgtk-dev. Custom schemes and virtual files systems are supported under this backend, however embedded resources such as images and stylesheets are currently loaded using the data:// scheme.

WEBVIEW_WEBKIT2 (GTK3)

Under GTK3 the WebKit2 version of

WebKitGTK+ is used. In Ubuntu the required package name is libwebkit2gtk-4.0-dev and under Fedora it is webkitgtk4-devel. All WEBVIEW_WEBKIT features are supported except for clearing and enabling / disabling the history.

WEBVIEW_WEBKIT (OSX)

The macOS WebKit backend uses Apple’s

WebView class. This backend has full support for custom schemes and virtual file systems.

phoenix_title Asynchronous Notifications

Many of the methods in wx.html2.WebView are asynchronous, i.e. they return immediately and perform their work in the background. This includes functions such as LoadURL and Reload. To receive notification of the progress and completion of these functions you need to handle the events that are provided. Specifically wxEVT_WEBVIEW_LOADED notifies when the page or a sub-frame has finished loading and wxEVT_WEBVIEW_ERROR notifies that an error has occurred.

phoenix_title Virtual File Systems and Custom Schemes

wx.html2.WebView supports the registering of custom scheme handlers, for example file or http . To do this create a new class which inherits from wx.html2.WebViewHandler, where WebHandler.GetFile() returns a pointer to a wx.FSFile which represents the given url. You can then register your handler with RegisterHandler it will be called for all pages and resources. wx.html2.WebViewFSHandler is provided to access the virtual file system encapsulated by wx.FileSystem. The wx.MemoryFSHandler documentation gives an example of how this may be used. wx.html2.WebViewArchiveHandler is provided to allow the navigation of pages inside a zip archive. It supports paths of the form: scheme:///C :/example/docs.zip;protocol=zip/main.htm

events Events Emitted by this Class

Handlers bound for the following event types will receive one of the wx.html2.WebViewEvent parameters.

  • EVT_WEBVIEW_NAVIGATING: Process a wxEVT_WEBVIEW_NAVIGATING event, generated before trying to get a resource. This event may be vetoed to prevent navigating to this resource. Note that if the displayed HTML document has several frames, one such event will be generated per frame.

  • EVT_WEBVIEW_NAVIGATED: Process a wxEVT_WEBVIEW_NAVIGATED event generated after it was confirmed that a resource would be requested. This event may not be vetoed. Note that if the displayed HTML document has several frames, one such event will be generated per frame.

  • EVT_WEBVIEW_LOADED: Process a wxEVT_WEBVIEW_LOADED event generated when the document is fully loaded and displayed. Note that if the displayed HTML document has several frames, one such event will be generated per frame.

  • EVT_WEBVIEW_ERROR: Process a wxEVT_WEBVIEW_ERROR event generated when a navigation error occurs. The integer associated with this event will be a WebNavigationError item. The string associated with this event may contain a backend-specific more precise error message/code.

  • EVT_WEBVIEW_NEWWINDOW: Process a wxEVT_WEBVIEW_NEWWINDOW event, generated when a new window is created. You must handle this event if you want anything to happen, for example to load the page in a new window or tab.

  • EVT_WEBVIEW_TITLE_CHANGED: Process a wxEVT_WEBVIEW_TITLE_CHANGED event, generated when the page title changes. Use GetString to get the title.

wx.html2.WebView

New in version 2.9.3.


class_hierarchy Class Hierarchy

Inheritance diagram for class WebView:

sub_classes Known Subclasses

WebViewIE


method_summary Methods Summary

CanCopy

Returns True if the current selection can be copied.

CanCut

Returns True if the current selection can be cut.

CanGoBack

Returns True if it is possible to navigate backward in the history of visited pages.

CanGoForward

Returns True if it is possible to navigate forward in the history of visited pages.

CanPaste

Returns True if data can be pasted.

CanRedo

Returns True if there is an action to redo.

CanSetZoomType

Retrieve whether the current HTML engine supports a zoom type.

CanUndo

Returns True if there is an action to undo.

ClearHistory

Clear the history, this will also remove the visible page.

ClearSelection

Clears the current selection.

Copy

Copies the current selection.

Create

Creation function for two-step creation.

Cut

Cuts the current selection.

DeleteSelection

Deletes the current selection.

EnableAccessToDevTools

Enable or disable access to dev tools for the user.

EnableContextMenu

Enable or disable the right click context menu.

EnableHistory

Enable or disable the history.

Find

Finds a phrase on the current page and if found, the control will scroll the phrase into view and select it.

GetBackwardHistory

Returns a list of items in the back history.

GetClassDefaultAttributes

GetCurrentTitle

Get the title of the current web page, or its URL/path if title is not available.

GetCurrentURL

Get the URL of the currently displayed document.

GetForwardHistory

Returns a list of items in the forward history.

GetNativeBackend

Return the pointer to the native backend used by this control.

GetPageSource

Get the HTML source code of the currently displayed document.

GetPageText

Get the text of the current page.

GetSelectedSource

Returns the currently selected source, if any.

GetSelectedText

Returns the currently selected text, if any.

GetZoom

Get the zoom level of the page.

GetZoomFactor

Get the zoom factor of the page.

GetZoomType

Get how the zoom factor is currently interpreted.

GoBack

Navigate back in the history of visited pages.

GoForward

Navigate forward in the history of visited pages.

HasSelection

Returns True if there is a current selection.

IsAccessToDevToolsEnabled

Returns True if dev tools are available to the user.

IsBackendAvailable

Allows to check if a specific backend is currently available.

IsBusy

Returns whether the web control is currently busy (e.g. loading a page).

IsContextMenuEnabled

Returns True if a context menu will be shown on right click.

IsEditable

Returns whether the web control is currently editable.

LoadURL

Load a web page from a URL.

MSWSetEmulationLevel

Sets emulation level.

MSWSetModernEmulationLevel

New

Factory function to create a new wx.html2.WebView with two-step creation, wx.html2.WebView.Create should be called on the returned object.

Paste

Pastes the current data.

Print

Opens a print dialog so that the user may print the currently displayed page.

Redo

Redos the last action.

RegisterFactory

Allows the registering of new backend for wx.html2.WebView.

RegisterHandler

Registers a custom scheme handler.

Reload

Reload the currently displayed URL.

RunScript

Runs the given JavaScript code.

SelectAll

Selects the entire page.

SetEditable

Set the editable property of the web control.

SetPage

Set the displayed page source to the contents of the given string.

SetZoom

Set the zoom level of the page.

SetZoomFactor

Set the zoom factor of the page.

SetZoomType

Set how to interpret the zoom factor.

Stop

Stop the current page loading process, if any.

Undo

Undos the last action.


api Class API

class wx.html2.WebView(Control)

This control may be used to render web (HTML / CSS / javascript) documents.


Methods

CanCopy(self)

Returns True if the current selection can be copied.

Return type

bool

Note

This always returns true on the macOS WebKit backend.



CanCut(self)

Returns True if the current selection can be cut.

Return type

bool

Note

This always returns true on the macOS WebKit backend.



CanGoBack(self)

Returns True if it is possible to navigate backward in the history of visited pages.

Return type

bool



CanGoForward(self)

Returns True if it is possible to navigate forward in the history of visited pages.

Return type

bool



CanPaste(self)

Returns True if data can be pasted.

Return type

bool

Note

This always returns true on the macOS WebKit backend.



CanRedo(self)

Returns True if there is an action to redo.

Return type

bool



CanSetZoomType(self, type)

Retrieve whether the current HTML engine supports a zoom type.

Parameters

type (WebViewZoomType) – The zoom type to test.

Return type

bool

Returns

Whether this type of zoom is supported by this HTML engine (and thus can be set through SetZoomType ).



CanUndo(self)

Returns True if there is an action to undo.

Return type

bool



ClearHistory(self)

Clear the history, this will also remove the visible page.

Note

This is not implemented on the WebKit2GTK+ backend.



ClearSelection(self)

Clears the current selection.



Copy(self)

Copies the current selection.



Create(self, parent, id=ID_ANY, url=WebViewDefaultURLStr, pos=DefaultPosition, size=DefaultSize, style=0, name=WebViewNameStr)

Creation function for two-step creation.

Parameters
  • parent (wx.Window) –

  • id (wx.WindowID) –

  • url (string) –

  • pos (wx.Point) –

  • size (wx.Size) –

  • style (long) –

  • name (string) –

Return type

bool



Cut(self)

Cuts the current selection.



DeleteSelection(self)

Deletes the current selection.

Note that for WEBVIEW_BACKEND_WEBKIT the selection must be editable, either through SetEditable or the correct HTML attribute.



EnableAccessToDevTools(self, enable=True)

Enable or disable access to dev tools for the user.

This is currently only implemented for the Edge (Chromium) backend where the dev tools are enabled by default.

Parameters

enable (bool) –

New in version 4.1/wxWidgets-3.1.4.



EnableContextMenu(self, enable=True)

Enable or disable the right click context menu.

By default the standard context menu is enabled, this method can be used to disable it or re-enable it later.

Parameters

enable (bool) –

New in version 2.9.5.



EnableHistory(self, enable=True)

Enable or disable the history.

This will also clear the history.

Parameters

enable (bool) –

Note

This is not implemented on the WebKit2GTK+ backend.



Find(self, text, flags=WEBVIEW_FIND_DEFAULT)

Finds a phrase on the current page and if found, the control will scroll the phrase into view and select it.

Parameters
  • text (string) – The phrase to search for.

  • flags (WebViewFindFlags) – The flags for the search.

Return type

long

Returns

If search phrase was not found in combination with the flags then NOT_FOUND is returned. If called for the first time with search phrase then the total number of results will be returned. Then for every time its called with the same search phrase it will return the number of the current match.

New in version 2.9.5.

Note

This function will restart the search if the flags WEBVIEW_FIND_ENTIRE_WORD or WEBVIEW_FIND_MATCH_CASE are changed, since this will require a new search. To reset the search, for example resetting the highlights call the function with an empty search phrase. This always returns NOT_FOUND on the macOS WebKit backend.



GetBackwardHistory(self)

Returns a list of items in the back history.

The first item in the vector is the first page that was loaded by the control.

Return type

PyObject



static GetClassDefaultAttributes(variant=WINDOW_VARIANT_NORMAL)
Parameters

variant (WindowVariant) –

Return type

VisualAttributes



GetCurrentTitle(self)

Get the title of the current web page, or its URL/path if title is not available.

Return type

string



GetCurrentURL(self)

Get the URL of the currently displayed document.

Return type

string



GetForwardHistory(self)

Returns a list of items in the forward history.

The first item in the vector is the next item in the history with respect to the currently loaded page.

Return type

PyObject



GetNativeBackend(self)

Return the pointer to the native backend used by this control.

This method can be used to retrieve the pointer to the native rendering engine used by this control. The return value needs to be down-casted to the appropriate type depending on the platform: under Windows, it’s a pointer to IWebBrowser2 interface, under macOS it’s a WebView pointer and under GTK it’s a WebKitWebView.

For example, you could set the WebKit options using this method:

# In Python the value returned will be a sip wrapper around a void* type,
# and it can be converted to the address being pointed to with int().
webview_ptr = self.webview.GetNativeBackend()

# Assuming you are able to get a ctypes, cffi or similar access to the
# webview library, you can use that pointer value to give it access to the
# WebView backend to operate upon.
theWebViewLib.doSomething(int(webview_ptr))

New in version 2.9.5.



GetPageSource(self)

Get the HTML source code of the currently displayed document.

Return type

string

Returns

The HTML source code, or an empty string if no page is currently shown.



GetPageText(self)

Get the text of the current page.

Return type

string



GetSelectedSource(self)

Returns the currently selected source, if any.

Return type

string



GetSelectedText(self)

Returns the currently selected text, if any.

Return type

string



GetZoom(self)

Get the zoom level of the page.

See GetZoomFactor to get more precise zoom scale value other than as provided by WebViewZoom .

Return type

wx.html2.WebViewZoom

Returns

The current level of zoom.



GetZoomFactor(self)

Get the zoom factor of the page.

Return type

float

Returns

The current factor of zoom.

New in version 4.1/wxWidgets-3.1.4.



GetZoomType(self)

Get how the zoom factor is currently interpreted.

Return type

wx.html2.WebViewZoomType

Returns

How the zoom factor is currently interpreted by the HTML engine.



GoBack(self)

Navigate back in the history of visited pages.

Only valid if CanGoBack returns True.



GoForward(self)

Navigate forward in the history of visited pages.

Only valid if CanGoForward returns True.



HasSelection(self)

Returns True if there is a current selection.

Return type

bool



IsAccessToDevToolsEnabled(self)

Returns True if dev tools are available to the user.

Return type

bool

New in version 4.1/wxWidgets-3.1.4.



static IsBackendAvailable(backend)

Allows to check if a specific backend is currently available.

Parameters

backend (string) –

Return type

bool

New in version 4.1/wxWidgets-3.1.4.



IsBusy(self)

Returns whether the web control is currently busy (e.g. loading a page).

Return type

bool



IsContextMenuEnabled(self)

Returns True if a context menu will be shown on right click.

Return type

bool

New in version 2.9.5.



IsEditable(self)

Returns whether the web control is currently editable.

Return type

bool



LoadURL(self, url)

Load a web page from a URL.

Parameters

url (string) – The URL of the page to be loaded.

Note

Web engines generally report errors asynchronously, so if you wish to know whether loading the URL was successful, register to receive navigation error events.



static MSWSetEmulationLevel(level=WEBVIEWIE_EMU_IE11)

Sets emulation level.

This function is useful to change the emulation level of the system browser control used for wx.html2.WebView implementation under MSW, rather than using the currently default, IE7-compatible, level.

Please notice that this function works by modifying the per-user part of MSW registry, which has several implications: first, it is sufficient to call it only once (per user) as the changes done by it are persistent and, second, if you do not want them to be persistent, you need to call it with WEBVIEWIE_EMU_DEFAULT argument explicitly.

In particular, this function should be called to allow RunScript to work for JavaScript code returning arbitrary objects, which is not supported at the default emulation level.

If set to a level higher than installed version, the highest available level will be used instead. WEBVIEWIE_EMU_IE11 is recommended for best performance and experience.

This function is MSW-specific and doesn’t exist under other platforms.

See https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ee330730#browser_emulation for more information about browser control emulation levels.

Parameters

level (WebViewIE_EmulationLevel) – the target emulation level

Return type

bool

Returns

True on success, False on failure (a warning message is also logged in the latter case).

New in version 4.1/wxWidgets-3.1.3.



static MSWSetModernEmulationLevel(modernLevel=True)

Please explicitly specify emulation level with MSWSetEmulationLevel .

Parameters

modernLevel (bool) – True to set level to IE8, synonym for WEBVIEWIE_EMU_IE8 . False to reset the emulation level to its default, synonym for WEBVIEWIE_EMU_DEFAULT .

Return type

bool

Returns

True on success, False on failure (a warning message is also logged in the latter case).

New in version 4.1/wxWidgets-3.1.1.

Deprecated

This function is kept mostly for backwards compatibility.



static New(*args, **kw)

overload Overloaded Implementations:



New (backend=WebViewBackendDefault)

Factory function to create a new wx.html2.WebView with two-step creation, wx.html2.WebView.Create should be called on the returned object.

Parameters

backend (string) – The backend web rendering engine to use. WebViewBackendDefault , WebViewBackendIE and WebViewBackendWebKit are predefined where appropriate.

Return type

wx.html2.WebView

Returns

The created wx.html2.WebView

New in version 2.9.5.



New (parent, id=ID_ANY, url=WebViewDefaultURLStr, pos=DefaultPosition, size=DefaultSize, backend=WebViewBackendDefault, style=0, name=WebViewNameStr)

Factory function to create a new wx.html2.WebView using a wx.html2.WebViewFactory.

Parameters
  • parent (wx.Window) – Parent window for the control

  • id (wx.WindowID) – ID of this control

  • url (string) – Initial URL to load

  • pos (wx.Point) – Position of the control

  • size (wx.Size) – Size of the control

  • backend (string) – The backend web rendering engine to use. WebViewBackendDefault , WebViewBackendIE and WebViewBackendWebKit are predefined where appropriate.

  • style (long) – Window style. For generic window styles, please see wx.Window.

  • name (string) – Window name.

Return type

wx.html2.WebView

Returns

The created wx.html2.WebView, or NULL if the requested backend is not available

New in version 2.9.5.





Paste(self)

Pastes the current data.



Print(self)

Opens a print dialog so that the user may print the currently displayed page.



Redo(self)

Redos the last action.



static RegisterFactory(backend, factory)

Allows the registering of new backend for wx.html2.WebView.

backend can be used as an argument to New .

Parameters
  • backend (string) – The name for the new backend to be registered under

  • factory (wx.html2.WebViewFactory) – A shared pointer to the factory which creates the appropriate backend.

New in version 2.9.5.



RegisterHandler(self, handler)

Registers a custom scheme handler.

Parameters

handler (wx.html2.WebViewHandler) – A shared pointer to a WebHandler.



Reload(self, flags=WEBVIEW_RELOAD_DEFAULT)

Reload the currently displayed URL.

Parameters

flags (WebViewReloadFlags) – A bit array that may optionally contain reload options.

Note

The flags are ignored by the edge backend.



RunScript(self, javascript)

Runs the given JavaScript code.

JavaScript code is executed inside the browser control and has full access to DOM and other browser-provided functionality. For example, this code

webview.RunScript("document.write('Hello from wx.Widgets!')")

will replace the current page contents with the provided string.

If output is non-null, it is filled with the result of executing this code on success, e.g. a JavaScript value such as a string, a number (integer or floating point), a boolean or JSON representation for non-primitive types such as arrays and objects. For example:

success, result = webview.RunScript(
    "document.getElementById('some_id').innderHTML")

if success:
    ... result contains the contents of the given element ...

else:
    ... the element with self ID probably doesn't exist ...

This function has a few platform-specific limitations:

  • When using WebKit v1 in wxGTK2, retrieving the result of JavaScript execution is unsupported and this function will always return False if output is non-null to indicate this. This functionality is fully supported when using WebKit v2 or later in GTK3.

  • When using WebKit under macOS, code execution is limited to at most 10MiB of memory and 10 seconds of execution time.

  • When using IE backend under MSW, scripts can only be executed when the current page is fully loaded (i.e. wxEVT_WEBVIEW_LOADED event was received). A script tag inside the page HTML is required in order to run JavaScript.

Also notice that under MSW converting JavaScript objects to JSON is not supported in the default emulation mode. wx.html2.WebView implements its own object-to-JSON conversion as a fallback for this case, however it is not as full-featured, well-tested or performing as the implementation of this functionality in the browser control itself, so it is recommended to use MSWSetEmulationLevel() to change emulation level to a more modern one in which JSON conversion is done by the control itself.

Parameters

javascript (string) – JavaScript code to execute.

Return type

tuple

Returns

( bool, output )



SelectAll(self)

Selects the entire page.



SetEditable(self, enable=True)

Set the editable property of the web control.

Enabling allows the user to edit the page even if the contenteditable attribute is not set. The exact capabilities vary with the backend being used.

Parameters

enable (bool) –



SetPage(self, *args, **kw)

overload Overloaded Implementations:



SetPage (self, html, baseUrl)

Set the displayed page source to the contents of the given string.

Parameters
  • html (string) – The string that contains the HTML data to display.

  • baseUrl (string) – URL assigned to the HTML data, to be used to resolve relative paths, for instance.

Note

When using WEBVIEW_BACKEND_IE you must wait for the current page to finish loading before calling SetPage . The baseURL parameter is not used in this backend and the edge backend.



SetPage (self, html, baseUrl)

Set the displayed page source to the contents of the given stream.

Parameters
  • html (wx.InputStream) – The stream to read HTML data from.

  • baseUrl (string) – URL assigned to the HTML data, to be used to resolve relative paths, for instance.





SetZoom(self, zoom)

Set the zoom level of the page.

See SetZoomFactor for more precise scaling other than the measured steps provided by WebViewZoom .

Parameters

zoom (WebViewZoom) – How much to zoom (scale) the HTML document.



SetZoomFactor(self, zoom)

Set the zoom factor of the page.

Parameters

zoom (float) – How much to zoom (scale) the HTML document in arbitrary number.

New in version 4.1/wxWidgets-3.1.4.

Note

zoom scale in IE will be converted into WebViewZoom levels for WebViewZoomType of WEBVIEW_ZOOM_TYPE_TEXT .



SetZoomType(self, zoomType)

Set how to interpret the zoom factor.

Parameters

zoomType (WebViewZoomType) – How the zoom factor should be interpreted by the HTML engine.

Note

invoke CanSetZoomType first, some HTML renderers may not support all zoom types.



Stop(self)

Stop the current page loading process, if any.

May trigger an error event of type WEBVIEW_NAV_ERR_USER_CANCELLED . TODO: make WEBVIEW_NAV_ERR_USER_CANCELLED errors uniform across ports.



Undo(self)

Undos the last action.


Properties

BackwardHistory

See GetBackwardHistory



CurrentTitle

See GetCurrentTitle



CurrentURL

See GetCurrentURL



ForwardHistory

See GetForwardHistory



NativeBackend

See GetNativeBackend



PageSource

See GetPageSource



PageText

See GetPageText



SelectedSource

See GetSelectedSource



SelectedText

See GetSelectedText



Zoom

See GetZoom and SetZoom



ZoomFactor

See GetZoomFactor and SetZoomFactor



ZoomType

See GetZoomType and SetZoomType